bkoctSmart Learning Languages

Best 100 Language Learning Books, eBooks, Information, Software, Games and Online Courses, Plus Lots Of Promotional Contents Free For All Visitors

List of best 100 languages by total number of speakers From Wikipedia. English is first by around 1200 to 2400 million speakers.
This is an approximate list of languages by the total number of speakers. It lists 34 languages having more than 45 million speakers.
List of best 100 languages by number of native speakers From Wikipedia. English is third by around 400 million speakers.
List of 100 EF English Proficiency Index (EF EPI) attempts to rank countries by the average level of English language skills.
List of best 70 Amazing Advantages and Benefits of Learning Language by, universeofmemory.com

10 Reasons to learn a foreign language Language Institute

Learning a Language Will Change your Life for Good | Christopher McCormick | TEDxPhnomPenh TEDx Talks As the head of language research, training and testing for EF Education First — the world’s largest language school — Dr. Christopher McCormick oversees the instructional design and delivery of EF’s language programs. His work focuses on online language learning, educational mobile applications, and digital media for accelerated language learning. His language abilities span English, Spanish and Russian, amongst others. Dr. McCormick holds a B.A. with honors in French and Russian from Tulane University, and a Ph.D. in Applied Linguistics from the University of Texas at Austin.

What’s the Easiest Language to Learn? Possibly the most commonly asked question about language learning is “What is the easiest language to learn?” I answer that question in general, and then with regard to native English speakers. The short answer: whatever language is most similar to your native language. But of course there`s more to it than that. https://langfocus.com/innovative-lang….

The 10 Most Widely Spoken Languages in the World by Langfocus This video is about the ten most widely spoken languages in the world, measured in two ways: by the number of native speakers, and by the total number of speakers (including second language speakers)

What Job Can I do With Foreign Language Skills?
The Importance of Learning a Second Language | Karina Morey | TEDxYouth@FHS
TEDx Talks
Karina has lived all around the world and seen the importance of learning a second language. You’ll learn why you should, too. Karina Morey is in seventh grade and loves theater, basketball, field hockey, and is part of the seventh and eighth grade SCA. She would love to be fluent in more than two languages other than English and plans to live outside of the United States in the future. Her talk, “Languages of the Future,” reflects the need to be more educated in other languages as globalization becomes more important
David Crystal – Will English Always Be the Global Language? BritishCouncilSerbia
From the interview with David Crystal in Belgrade on 9 November 2013 Interviewer: Tony O’Brien, British Council Director Western Balkans
David Crystal – World Englishes BritishCouncilSerbia
The myth of the native speaker (with David Crystal) Canguro English
In this interview I talk to David Crystal: a legend in the world of the English language. He is a linguist, lecturer, and broadcaster, and he has written or edited over 100 books about language including the Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English language. We talk about language change, the myth of the native speaker, and why learning languages is part of being human.
“What is Language and Why Does It Matter” – Noam Chomsky Linguistic Society of America
Professor Noam Chomsky’s Forum Lecture, “What is Language and Why Does It Matter” from the 2013 Linguistic Society of America Summer Institute at the University of Michigan.
The Concept of Language (Noam Chomsky) UW Video
Linguist Noam Chomsky, professor at MIT, discusses the ways in which language changes over time and how the idea of a national language is a modern phenomenon. In this University of Washington interview, Upon Reflection host Al Page speaks with Chomsky about how languages are systems of communication rooted in human nature.
Steven Pinker: Linguistics as a Window to Understanding the Brain | Big Think In this lecture, Steven Pinker, renowned linguist and Harvard Psychology Professor, discusses linguistics as a window to understanding the human brain. https://bigth.ink

++++

World language From Wikipedia https://wiki2.org/en/World_language

world language is one that is spoken internationally and learned and spoken by numerous people as a second language. A world language is characterized not only by the total number of speakers (native and second language speakers) but also by geographical distribution and its use in international organizations and diplomatic relations.

The most widely spoken (and likely the fastest spreading) world language today is English, with over 1.1 billion native and second-language users worldwide. On similar grounds, French is also commonly categorized as a world language. Other possible world languages include SpanishArabicHindustani language (HindiUrdu), Mandarin ChineseRussian and Portuguese.

Historically, Aramaic, Ancient Greek, Latin, Classical Chinese, Persian, Sanskrit, and Classical Arabic have also functioned as world languages due to their previous standings as lingua francas over large parts of the world. Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/World_language

++++

International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and the movement towards an international standard for the language. It is also referred to as 

Global English

World English

Common English

Continental English

General EnglishEngas (English as associate language), or 

Globish. Sometimes, these terms refer simply to the array of varieties of English spoken throughout the world. Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/International_English

English as a second or foreign language From Wikipedia, https://wiki2.org/en/English_as_a_second_or_foreign_language

English as a second or foreign language is the use of English by speakers with different native languages. Language education for people learning English may be known as 

English as a second language (ESL), 

English as a foreign language (EFL), 

English as an additional language (EAL), or 

English for speakers of other languages (ESOL).

The aspect in which ESL is taught is referred to as Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL), Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) or Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). Technically, TEFL refers to English language teaching in a country where English is not the official language, TESL refers to teaching English to non-native English speakers in a native English speaking country and TESOL covers both. In practice, however, each of these terms tends to be used more generically across the full field. The one you are more likely to hear depends largely on your location – with TEFL more widely used in the UK and TESL or TESOL in the US.

The term “ESL” has been seen by some to indicate that English would be of subordinate importance; for example, where English is used as a lingua franca in a multilingual country. The term can be a misnomer for some students who have learned several languages before learning English. The terms “English language learners” (ELL), and, more recently, “English learners” (EL), have been used instead, and the students’ native languages and cultures are considered important. Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/English_as_a_second_or_foreign_language

Why Did English Become the International Language? Langfocus
This video explores how English became the global lingua franca.
How Are British English and American English Different?

The EF English Proficiency Index (EF EPI) attempts to rank countries by the average level of English language skills amongst those adults who took the EF test.

2019 rankings

Below are the lat­est coun­try scores, pro­fi­ciency bands, and rank­ings as pub­lished in 2019.[13]

2019 RankCountry2019 Score2019 Proficiency Band
1 Netherlands70.27Very High Proficiency
2 Sweden68.74Very High Proficiency
3 Norway67.93Very High Proficiency
4 Denmark67.87Very High Proficiency
5 Singapore66.82Very High Proficiency
6 South Africa65.38Very High Proficiency
7 Finland65.34Very High Proficiency
8 Austria64.11Very High Proficiency
9 Luxembourg64.03Very High Proficiency
10 Germany63.77Very High Proficiency
11 Poland63.76Very High Proficiency
12 Portugal63.14Very High Proficiency
13 Belgium63.09Very High Proficiency
14 Croatia63.07Very High Proficiency
15 Hungary61.86High Proficiency
16 Romania61.36High Proficiency
17 Serbia61.30High Proficiency
18 Kenya60.51High Proficiency
19  Switzerland60.23High Proficiency
20 Philippines60.14High Proficiency
21 Lithuania60.11High Proficiency
22 Greece59.87High Proficiency
23 Czech Republic59.30High Proficiency
24 Bulgaria58.97High Proficiency
25 Slovakia58.82High Proficiency
26 Malaysia58.55High Proficiency
27 Argentina58.38High Proficiency
28 Estonia58.29High Proficiency
29 Nigeria58.26High Proficiency
30 Costa Rica57.38Moderate Proficiency
31 France57.25Moderate Proficiency
32 Latvia56.85Moderate Proficiency
33 Hong Kong55.63Moderate Proficiency
34 India55.49Moderate Proficiency
35 Spain55.46Moderate Proficiency
36 Italy55.31Moderate Proficiency
37 South Korea55.04Moderate Proficiency
38 Taiwan54.18Moderate Proficiency
39 Uruguay54.08Moderate Proficiency
40 Mainland China53.44Moderate Proficiency
41 Macau53.34Moderate Proficiency
42 Chile52.89Moderate Proficiency
43 Cuba52.70Moderate Proficiency
44 Dominican Republic52.58Moderate Proficiency
45 Paraguay52.51Moderate Proficiency
46 Guatemala52.50Moderate Proficiency
47 Belarus52.39Low Proficiency
48 Russia52.14Low Proficiency
49 Ukraine52.13Low Proficiency
50 Albania51.99Low Proficiency
51 Bolivia51.64Low Proficiency
52 Vietnam51.57Low Proficiency
53 Japan51.51Low Proficiency
54 Pakistan51.41Low Proficiency
55 Bahrain50.92Low Proficiency
56 Georgia50.62Low Proficiency
57 Honduras50.53Low Proficiency
58 Peru50.22Low Proficiency
59 Brazil50.10Low Proficiency
60 El Salvador50.09Low Proficiency
61 Indonesia50.06Low Proficiency
62 Nicaragua49.89Low Proficiency
63 Ethiopia49.64Low Proficiency
64 Panama49.60Low Proficiency
65 Tunisia49.04Low Proficiency
66   Nepal49.00Low Proficiency
67 Mexico48.99Low Proficiency
68 Colombia48.75Low Proficiency
69 Iran48.69Low Proficiency
70 United Arab Emirates48.19Very Low Proficiency
71 Bangladesh48.11Very Low Proficiency
72 Maldives48.02Very Low Proficiency
73 Venezuela47.81Very Low Proficiency
74 Thailand47.61Very Low Proficiency
75 Jordan47.21Very Low Proficiency
76 Morocco47.19Very Low Proficiency
77 Egypt47.11Very Low Proficiency
78 Sri Lanka47.10Very Low Proficiency
79 Turkey46.81Very Low Proficiency
80 Qatar46.79Very Low Proficiency
81 Ecuador46.57Very Low Proficiency
82 Syria46.36Very Low Proficiency
83 Cameroon46.28Very Low Proficiency
84 Kuwait46.22Very Low Proficiency
85 Azerbaijan46.13Very Low Proficiency
86 Myanmar46.00Very Low Proficiency
87 Sudan45.94Very Low Proficiency
88 Mongolia45.56Very Low Proficiency
89 Afghanistan45.36Very Low Proficiency
90 Algeria45.28Very Low Proficiency
91 Angola44.54Very Low Proficiency
92 Oman44.39Very Low Proficiency
93 Kazakhstan43.83Very Low Proficiency
94 Cambodia43.78Very Low Proficiency
95 Uzbekistan43.18Very Low Proficiency
96 Ivory Coast42.41Very Low Proficiency
97 Iraq42.39Very Low Proficiency
98 Saudi Arabia41.60Very Low Proficiency
99 Kyrgyzstan41.51Very Low Proficiency
100 Libya40.87Very Low Proficiency
Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/EF_English_Proficiency_Index
Listen to world leaders speak English! J.J. McCullough
What do Putin, Merkel, Macron, and the popes sound like when they speak English? Can Xi speak English? What about Bolsonaro? What world leader speaks the best English of all? And did you know Boris can speak French? All will be revealed in this linguistic tour of presidents and prime ministers speaking second languages.

++++

List of countries by English-speaking population

The following is a list of English-speaking population by country, including information on both native speakers and second-language speakers. Read More: https://wiki2.org/en/List_of_countries_by_English-speaking_population

Percentage of English speakers by country.    .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;width:1.5em;height:1.5em;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black;font-size:100%}  80–100%   60–80%     40–60%   20–40%      0.1–20%   Not available

+++++

How many words do you need to speak a language? From BBC : https://www.bbc.com/news/world-44569277

To work out how many words you need to know to be able to speak a second language we decided to look into how many words we know in our first language, in our case English.

We considered dusting off the dictionary and going from A1 to Zyzzyva, however, there are an estimated 171,146 words currently in use in the English language, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, not to mention 47,156 obsolete words. Typically native speakers know 15,000 to 20,000 word families – or lemmas – in their first language. Word family/lemma is a root word and all its inflections, for example: run, running, ran; blue, bluer, bluest, blueish, etc.

So does someone who can hold a decent conversation in a second language know 15,000 to 20,000 words? Is this a realistic goal for our listener to aim for? Unlikely. Prof Webb found that people who have been studying languages in a traditional setting – say French in Britain or English in Japan – often struggle to learn more than 2,000 to 3,000 words, even after years of study.

In fact, a study in Taiwan showed that after nine years of learning a foreign language half of the students failed to learn the most frequently-used 1,000 words. So which words should we learn? Prof Webb says the most effective way to be able to speak a language quickly is to pick the 800 to 1,000 lemmas which appear most frequently in a language and learn those. If you learn only 800 of the most frequently-used lemmas in English, you’ll be able to understand 75% of the language as it is spoken in normal life.

Eight hundred lemmas will help you speak a language in a day-to-day setting, but to understand dialogue in film or TV you’ll need to know the 3,000 most common lemmas. And if you want to get your head around the written word – so novels, newspapers, excellently-written BBC articles – you need to learn 8,000 to 9,000 lemmas. Read more : https://www.bbc.com/news/world-44569277

++++

How Many Words Does the Average Person Know? From Word Counter https://wordcounter.io/

  • Most adult native test-takers have a vocabulary range of about 20,000-35,000 words
  • At age one, a child will recognize about 50 words
  • At age three, a child will recognize about 1,000 words
  • At age five, a child will recognize about 10,000 words
  • According to Kim, Shakespeare’s combined written works totaled 25,000 unique words compared to the Wall Street Journal which used less than 20,000 unique words in its newspapers for a decade. (Note: Several other sources cite around over 30,000 words for all of Shakespeare’s collected writings).According to Kottke.org’s statistical estimate, Shakespeare probably had about 35,000 words in his passive vocabulary. With both vocabularies combined, he would have known a total of about 65,000 words!
  • According to lexicographer and dictionary expert Susie Dent, “the average active vocabulary of an adult English speaker is around 20,000 words, while his passive vocabulary is around 40,000 words.”
  • the first 25 words are used in 33% of every day writing
  • the first 100 words are used in 50% of adult and student writing
  • the first 1,000 words are used in 89% of every day writing
  • Word Counter is an easy to use online tool for counting words, characters, sentences, paragraphs and pages in real time, along with spelling and grammar checking. 
  • Read more: /wordcounter.io/blog/how-many-words-does-the-average-person-know/
  • Active vocabulary: You can remember it quickly. And you can use it without hesitation in your thoughts, when you talk, and when you write as well.
  • Passive vocabulary: you recognize and understand the word (more or less) when you happen to hear it or see it. However, you can’t easily remember the word and aren’t comfortable using it in conversation.
  • How Many Words Do I Need to Know to Be Fluent in a Foreign Language?
  • In general, we can describe levels of fluency in a foreign language with these rough word counts:
  • Functional beginner: 250-500 words. After just a week or so of learning, you’ll already have most of the tools to start having basic, everyday conversations. In most of the world’s languages, 500 words will be more than enough to get you through any tourist situations and everyday introductions.
  • Conversational: 1,000-3,000 words. With around 1,000 words in most languages, you’ll be able to ask people how they’re doing, tell them about your day and navigate everyday life situations like shopping and public transit.
  • Advanced: 4,000-10,000 words. As you grow past the 3,000 word mark or so in most languages, you’re moving beyond the words that make up everyday conversation and into specialized vocabulary for talking about your professional field, news and current events, opinions and more complex, abstract verbal feats. At this point, you should be able to reach C2 level in the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) in most languages.
  • Fluent: 10,000+ words. At around 10,000 words in many languages, you’ve reached a near-native level of vocabulary, with the requisite words for talking about nearly any topic in detail. Furthermore, you recognize enough words in every utterance that you usually understand the unfamiliar ones from context.
  • Native: 10,000-30,000+ words. Total word counts vary widely between world languages, making it difficult to say how many words native speakers know in general. As we discussed above, estimates of how many words are known by the average native English speaker vary from 10,000 to 65,000+

Tips for strengthening passive vocabulary:

  • Watching children’s shows: TV shows for small children speak in a slow, articulate manner with a simple vocabulary and lots of context clues. This week’s episode about colors might not be as exciting as “Game of Thrones,” but it’ll help you expose your brain to the new vocabulary in context, just like children do.
  • Reading children’s books in translation: “Green Eggs and Ham” only used fifty words in the whole book. Hunt down some Dr. Seuss or other familiar children’s classics and learn new words easily by reading these, as the vocabulary is simple and you’ll already be familiar with the context.
  • Watching Disney or other animated films: Watching a movie you’ve already seen a hundred times (but doing it in your target language) works on the same principle as reading familiar children’s stories. The vocabulary is simple, and you already know the story so well that you’ll understand much of what you hear without ever needing to open a dictionary.
  • Learning vocabulary with real-life video with FluentU: FluentU’s online language learning platform uses videos like TV and movie clips to let you expose yourself to real-life language use and suck up some more new words into your passive vocabulary.With FluentU, you learn real languages—the same way that natives speak them. FluentU has a wide variety of videos like movie trailers, funny commercials and web series, as you can see here: Read more : https://www.fluentu.com/blog/how-many-words-do-i-need-to-know/
  • ++++
  • Cambridge students Word limits and requirements of your Degree Committee
    Thesis word limits are set by Degree Committees. If candidates need to increase their word limits they will need to apply for permission. Read more: University of Cambridge Students Word needs

++++

Wiktionary:Frequency lists from 100 words to 100/000 words in English and 100 other languages

Counting words and lemmas: The following frequency lists count distinct orthographic words, including inflected and some capitalised forms. For example, the verb “to be” is represented by “is”, “are”, “were”, and so on.

TV and movie scripts

Most common words in TV and movie scripts: Here are frequency lists comparable to the Gutenberg ones, but based on 29,213,800 words from TV and movie scripts and transcripts.

Here’s a fuller explanation of how the list was generated and its limitations: Wiktionary:Frequency lists/TV/2006/explanation.

Here are the top hundred words (from TV scripts) in alphabetical order:a · about · all · and · are · as · at · back · be · because · been · but · can · can’t · come · could · did · didn’t · do · don’t · for · from · get · go · going · good · got · had · have · he · her · here · he’s · hey · him · his · how · I · if · I’ll · I’m · in · is · it · it’s · just · know · like · look · me · mean · my · no · not · now · of · oh · OK · okay · on · one · or · out · really · right · say · see · she · so · some · something · tell · that · that’s · the · then · there · they · think · this · time · to · up · want · was · we · well · were · what · when · who · why · will · with · would · yeah · yes · you · your · you’re

1000 English Words with Examples, Sentences and English Speaking Practice. Learn 86% of English Learn English Quickly
Learn 1000 English words and you will understand 85.5% of the English language. I will walk you through each word and give you examples and sentences so you can follow along and improve your conversation, pronunciation, speaking, comprehension and much more

Here they are in frequency order:1-1000 · 1001-2000 · 2001-3000 · 3001-4000 · 4001-5000 · 5001-6000 · 6001-7000 · 7001-8000 · 8001-9000 · 9001-10000Top 1,000 words cover 85.5% of all words (24,981,922/29,213,800).Top 10,000 words cover 97.2% of all words (28,398,152/29,213,800).

From the 10,000th to the 40,000th :10001-12000 · 12001-14000 · 14001-16000 · 16001-18000 · 18001-20000 · 20001-22000 · 22001-24000 · 24001-26000 · 26001-28000 · 28001-30000 · 30001-32000 · 32001-34000 · 34001-36000 · 36001-38000 · 38001-4000040001

These wikified terms can be copied to other language wiktionaries; this is what they are intended for. If you do, please add an interwiki link onto the page here.

Frequency lists as of 2006-04-16:

Frequency lists as of 2005-10-10:

1001-2000 · 2001-3000 · 3001-4000 · 4001-5000 · 5001-6000 · 6001-7000 · 7001-8000 · 8001-9000 · 9001-10000

Frequency lists as of 2005-08-16:

op 1000 Most Common English Words With Pictures and Audio
All English Lessons — build your vocabulary

Please SHARE, Like and give some Comments if you enjoy this video, or even DISLIKE if you want it to be improved. 1000 Most Common English Words – 1000 Most Commonly Used English Words.
10000 Common English Words With Examples All English Lessons — build your vocabulary
In this video we start learning 10000 most common English words with examples. Every word is provided with pronunciation. This video represents American English.

++++

The Indo-European Connection This video is about the Indo-European languages and the connections between them, going all the way back to Proto-Indo-European. Are you learning a language? One great resource to check out is Innovative Language podcast programs: https://langfocus.com/innovative-lang….
Why Are There So Many Different Languages? | Vermont Public Radio
What Is The Future Of Language? NowThis World
HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE 1 Birth of a Language doc series 10 Lionel Dufaye
English a Global Language ELI Multimedia
English language, From Wikipedia

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. It is named after the Angles, one of the ancient Germanic peoples that migrated to the area of Great Britain that later took their name, England. Both names derive from Anglia, a peninsula on the Baltic Sea. English is most closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon, while its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Old Norse (a North Germanic language), as well as Latin and French.

English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a group of West Germanic (Ingvaeonic) dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are collectively called Old EnglishMiddle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England; this was a period in which English was influenced by Old French, in particular through its Old Norman dialectEarly Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London, the printing of the King James Bible and the start of the Great Vowel Shift.

Modern English has been spreading around the world since the 17th century by the worldwide influence of the British Empire and the United States. Through all types of printed and electronic media of these countries, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and professional contexts such as sciencenavigation and law. Modern English grammar is the result of a gradual change from a typical Indo-European dependent marking pattern, with a rich inflectional morphology and relatively free word order, to a mostly analytic pattern with little inflection, a fairly fixed subject–verb–object word order and a complex syntaxModern English relies more on auxiliary verbs and word order for the expression of complex tensesaspect and mood, as well as passive constructionsinterrogatives and some negation.

English is the largest language by number of speakers, and the third most-spoken native language in the world, after Standard Chinese and Spanish. It is the most widely learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states. There are more people who have learned it as a second language than there are native speakers. It is estimated that there are over 2 billion speakers of English. English is the majority native language in the United States, the United KingdomCanadaAustraliaNew Zealand and Ireland, and it is widely spoken in some areas of the CaribbeanAfrica and South Asia. It is a co-official language of the United Nationsthe European Union and many other world and regional international organisations. It is the most widely spoken Germanic language, accounting for at least 70% of speakers of this Indo-European branch. English speakers are called “Anglophones”. Variability among the accents and dialects of English used in different countries and regions—in terms of phonetics and phonology, and sometimes also vocabularyidiomsgrammar, and spelling—does not typically prevent understanding by speakers of other dialects, although mutual unintelligibility can occur at extreme ends of the dialect continuum.

Percentage of English speakers by country      80–100%   60–80%     40–60%   20–40%     0–20%   Not available
Percentage of English speakers by country  80–100%
  60–80%
  40–60%
  20–40%
  0–20%
  Not available

Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/English_language

++++

Foreign language influences in English
From Wikipedia https://wiki2.org/en/Foreign_language_influences_in_English

About 80 percent of the entries in any English dictionary are borrowed.

According to one study, the percentage of modern English words derived from each language group are as follows:
Latin (including words used only in scientific / medical / legal contexts): ~29%
French (Latin): ~29%
Germanic: ~26%
Others: ~16%

According to one study, the percentage of modern English words derived from each language group are as follows:Latin (including words used only in scientific / medical / legal contexts): ~29%French (Latin): ~29%Germanic: ~26%Others: ~16%

Word origins

A com­put­er­ized sur­vey of about 80,000 words in the old Shorter Ox­ford Dic­tio­nary (3rd ed.) was pub­lished in Or­dered Profusion by Thomas Finken­staedt and Di­eter Wolff (1973) that es­ti­mated the ori­gin of Eng­lish words as fol­lows:

Indian languages

See also: List of English words of Hindi origin

Words re­lat­ing to cul­ture, orig­i­nat­ing from the colo­nial era. Many of these words are of Per­sian ori­gin rather than Hindi be­cause Per­sian was the of­fi­cial lan­guage e.g., py­ja­masbun­ga­lowve­ran­dahjun­glecurrykhaki.

Hebrew and Yiddish

Words used in re­li­gious con­texts, like Sab­bathkosherhal­lelu­jahamen, and ju­bilee or words that have be­come slang like schmuckshmoozenoshoy vey, and schmutz.

Arabic

See also: List of English words of Arabic origin

Trade items such as boraxcof­feecot­tonhashishhennamo­hairmuslinsaf­fronIs­lamic re­li­gious terms such as jihadha­dith and sharia; sci­en­tific vo­cab­u­lary bor­rowed into Latin in the 12th and 13th cen­turies (al­co­holal­kalial­ge­braaz­imuthci­phernadir); plants or plant prod­ucts orig­i­nat­ing in trop­i­cal Asia and in­tro­duced to me­dieval Eu­rope through Ara­bic in­ter­me­di­a­tion (cam­phorjas­minelac­querlemonor­angesugar); Mid­dle East­ern cui­sine words (cous­cousfalafelhum­muskebabtahini).

++++

Letters

The word con­so­nant is also used to refer to a let­ter of an al­pha­bet that de­notes a con­so­nant sound. The 21 con­so­nant let­ters in the Eng­lish al­pha­bet are 

1+ B, 2+ C, 3+ D, 4+F, 5+G, 6+H, 7+J, 8+K, 9+L, 10+M

11+ N, 12+P, 13+Q, 14+R, 15+S, 16+T, 17+V, 18+W, 19+X, 20+Z,

and usually 21+Y.

The 21 con­so­nant let­ters in the Eng­lish al­pha­bet are for 21th Century Global English Language of 4 billion plus human.

++++

Lists of English words by country or language of origin
From Wikipedia, https://wiki2.org/en/Lists_of_English_words_by_country_or_language_of_origin

++++

++++

Language Read more: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about human language in general.

A mural in Teotihuacan, Mexico (c. 2nd century) depicting a person emitting a speech scroll from his mouth, symbolizing speech

A mural in Teotihuacan, Mexico (c. 2nd century) depicting a person emitting a speech scroll from his mouth, symbolizing speech

A mural in Teotihuacan, Mexico (c. 2nd century) depicting a person emitting a speech scroll from his mouth, symbolizing speech

Cuneiform is the first known form of written language, but spoken language predates writing by at least tens of thousands of years.

A mural in Teotihuacan, Mexico (c. 2nd century) depicting a person emitting a speech scroll from his mouth, symbolizing speech

Two girls learning American Sign Language

A mural in Teotihuacan, Mexico (c. 2nd century) depicting a person emitting a speech scroll from his mouth, symbolizing speech

Braille writing, a tactile variant of a writing system

lan­guage is a struc­tured sys­tem of com­mu­ni­ca­tion. Lan­guage, in a broader sense, is the method of com­mu­ni­ca­tion that in­volves the use of – par­tic­u­larly human – languages.

The sci­en­tific study of lan­guage is called lin­guis­tics. Ques­tions con­cern­ing the phi­los­o­phy of lan­guage, such as whether words can rep­re­sent ex­pe­ri­ence, have been de­bated at least since Gor­gias and Plato in an­cient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau have ar­gued that lan­guage orig­i­nated from emo­tions while oth­ers like Kant have held that it orig­i­nated from ra­tio­nal and log­i­cal thought. Twen­ti­eth cen­tury philoso­phers such as Wittgen­stein ar­gued that phi­los­o­phy is re­ally the study of lan­guage. Major fig­ures in lin­guis­tics in­clude Fer­di­nand de Saus­sure and Noam Chom­sky.

Es­ti­mates of the num­ber of human lan­guages in the world vary be­tween 5,000 and 7,000. How­ever, any pre­cise es­ti­mate de­pends on the ar­bi­trary dis­tinc­tion (di­chotomy) be­tween lan­guages and di­alectNat­ural lan­guages are spo­ken or signed, but any lan­guage can be en­coded into sec­ondary media using au­di­tory, vi­sual, or tac­tile stim­uli – for ex­am­ple, in writ­ing, whistling, sign­ing, or braille. This is be­cause human lan­guage is modal­ity-in­de­pen­dent. De­pend­ing on philo­soph­i­cal per­spec­tives re­gard­ing the de­f­i­n­i­tion of lan­guage and mean­ing, when used as a gen­eral con­cept, “lan­guage” may refer to the cog­ni­tive abil­ity to learn and use sys­tems of com­plex com­mu­ni­ca­tion, or to de­scribe the set of rules that makes up these sys­tems, or the set of ut­ter­ances that can be pro­duced from those rules. All lan­guages rely on the process of semi­o­sis to re­late signs to par­tic­u­lar mean­ingsOralman­ual and tac­tile lan­guages con­tain a phono­log­i­cal sys­tem that gov­erns how sym­bols are used to form se­quences known as words or mor­phemes, and a syn­tac­tic sys­tem that gov­erns how words and mor­phemes are com­bined to form phrases and ut­ter­ances.

Read All: https://wiki2.org/en/Language

Language Areas of the brain. The Angular Gyrus is represented in orange, Supramarginal Gyrus is represented in yellow, Broca's area is represented in blue, Wernicke's area is represented in green, and the Primary Auditory Cortex is represented in pink.

Language Areas of the brain. The Angular Gyrus is represented in orange, Supramarginal Gyrus is represented in yellow, Broca’s area is represented in blue, Wernicke’s area is represented in green, and the Primary Auditory Cortex is represented in pink.

The human vocal tract.

The human vocal tract.

The human vocal tract.

Spectrogram of American English vowels [i, u, ɑ] showing the formants f1 and f2Play mediaReal time MRI scan of a person speaking in Mandarin Chinese

File:Real-time MRI - Speaking (Chinese).ogv

++++

Human voice From Wikipedia Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Human_voice

The human voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal tract, such as talkingsinginglaughingcryingscreamingshoutingyelling etc. The human voice frequency is specifically a part of human sound production in which the vocal folds (vocal cords) are the primary sound source. Generally speaking, the mechanism for generating the human voice can be subdivided into three parts; the lungs, the vocal folds within the larynx (voice box), and the articulators. The lungs, the “pump” must produce adequate airflow and air pressure to vibrate vocal folds. The vocal folds (vocal cords) then vibrate to use airflow from the lungs to create audible pulses that form the laryngeal sound source. The muscles of the larynx adjust the length and tension of the vocal folds to ‘fine-tune’ pitch and tone. The articulators (the parts of the vocal tract above the larynx consisting of tonguepalatecheeklips, etc.) articulate and filter the sound emanating from the larynx and to some degree can interact with the laryngeal airflow to strengthen or weaken it as a sound source. Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Human_voice

++++

The Science of the Voices in your Head – with Charles Fernyhough Mosaic celebrates its second year anniversary in March. To mark this, we’ll be sharing a series of 15min talks featuring Mosaic writers and stories produced in association with the inspiration and ideas series.
Here, Charles Fernyhough explores what he has learned in over a decade of study on auditory hallucinations – people who hear voices. You can hear more from him in the Mosaic radio documentary Voices in the dark on Mosaic and its podcast.
Charles Fernyhough is the author of Pieces of Light and The Baby in the Mirror, as well as two novels, The Auctioneer and A Box of Birds, and has contributed to the Guardian, TIME Ideas, Sunday Telegraph, Financial Times, Sydney Morning Herald, and Focus Magazine. He has published many scientific articles on the relation between language and thought, and his ideas on thinking as a dialogue with the self have been influential in several fields. He is a part-time Professor in Psychology at Durham University, where he directs Hearing the Voice, a project on inner voices funded by the Wellcome Trust. His latest book, The Voices Within: The History and Science of How We Talk to Ourselves, will be published by Profile in April 2016.

Also: The Science of the Voices in your Head – with Charles Fernyhough by The Royal Institution

Q&A – The Science of the Voices in your Head – with Charles Fernyhough by The Royal Institution

The Voices Within: The History and Science of How We Talk to Ourselves
The Voices Within: The History and Science of How We Talk to Ourselves
by Charles Fernyhough  | Oct 4, 2016 Kindle $18.99 $27.50 Hardcover

++++

Sound From Wikipedia Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Sound

In physicssound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.

In human physiology and psychology, sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by the brain. Only acoustic waves that have frequencies lying between about 20 Hz and 20 kHz, the audio frequency range, elicit an auditory percept in humans. In air at atmospheric pressure, these represent sound waves with wavelengths of 17 meters (56 ft) to 1.7 centimetres (0.67 in). Sound waves above 20 kHz are known as ultrasound and are not audible to humans. Sound waves below 20 Hz are known as infrasound. Different animal species have varying hearing ranges. Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Sound

++++

++++

Online Learning In Higher Education From Wikipedia Or Https://Wiki2.Org/En/Online_learning_in_higher_education

On­line learning in­volves courses of­fered by post­sec­ondary in­sti­tu­tions that are 100% vir­tual, ex­clud­ing mas­sively open on­line courses (MOOCs). On­line learn­ing, or vir­tual classes of­fered over the in­ter­net, is con­trasted with tra­di­tional courses taken in a brick-and-mor­tar school build­ing. It is the newest de­vel­op­ment in dis­tance ed­u­ca­tion that began in the mid-1990s with the spread of the in­ter­net and the World Wide Web. Learner ex­pe­ri­ence is typ­i­cally asyn­chro­nous, but may also in­cor­po­rate syn­chro­nous el­e­ments. The vast ma­jor­ity of in­sti­tu­tions uti­lize a Learn­ing Man­age­ment Sys­tem for the ad­min­is­tra­tion of on­line courses. As the­o­ries of dis­tance ed­u­ca­tion evolve, dig­i­tal tech­nolo­gies to sup­port learn­ing and ped­a­gogy con­tinue to trans­form as well.

++++

English Wikipedia - Wikipedia

www.wikipedia.org With more then 6000/000 articles in English in more then 300 Languages.

Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia, created and edited by volunteers around the world and hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation.

+++++

The Simple English Wikipedia

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

The Simple English Wikipedia is for everyone! That includes children and adults who are learning English. There are 171,000 articles on the Simple English …

++++


WIKI 2. Wikipedia Republished 
is Wikipedia with much better design, attractively formatted pages with few colors to choose but 100% the same information and it is free. Try and see differences for free. Get Extension

wiki2.org › …

+++++

Free ebooks and Free ebooks Readers: For Smartphones, Tablets, Laptops and Desktop Computers

++++

Enroll in 100 free online courses from Coursera now through …
https://www.businessinsider.com/free-online-coursera-courses

E-LearningOnline-learning site Coursera is offering 100 classes for free from now through December 31, 2020, to support access to online education for the one-third of people around the world who are currently under lockdown to prevent spreading the new coronavirus

Coursera is offering 100 online courses free, many of them taught by Ivy League schools or offered by companies like Google and Amazon, now through December 31.

See more: Yale’s most popular class ever is available free online — and the topic is how to be happier in your daily life

++++

The 100 Most Popular Online Courses of All Time (2020)

The best way to choose a free Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is to choose one that other people have taken and enjoyed.

Class Central has been maintaining a catalog of these MOOCs ever since they rose to popularity back in 2012. According to Class Central’s 2019 annual report on MOOCs, 110M students have taken at least one course and over 900+ universities have launched 13,500 courses.

To help learners decide which course to take, Class Central publishes a number of different rankings based on the tens of thousands of reviews written by Class Central users.

++++

List of most popular websites

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of the most popular websites worldwide according to the first 50 websites listed in the global “Top Sites” lists published by Alexa Internet, as of April 16, 2020, and SimilarWeb, as of July 2019, along with its rating on the corresponding service.

++++

Wikipedia:Multiyear Ranking Of 100 Most Viewed Pages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Being one of the best indicators of “what the collective world is thinking about,” the list of most viewed Wikipedia pages receives wide attention in unassociated institutions and external popular media sources. University Degli Studi di Milano created an engine of the complete ranking of all Wikipedia articles for 2014–2017. In 2013, an external media source attempted to determine the 10 most popular Wikipedia pages of all time.The same year the BBC news website published an article discussing most searched Wikipedia articles in 2012 in different languages. Other versions of top-lists for shorter periods are regularly published and discussed by external popular media

++++

THE 20 MOST POPULAR LANGUAGE SCHOOls in the World

Which language schools do you think are the most popular in the world? Here is the answer from the Swedish students in 2016.

++++

Top 200 Universities In The World
2020 World University Ranking
By Https://Www.4icu.Org/Top-Universities-World/

++++

2020 Best Colleges for Foreign Languages & Linguistics

www.collegefactual.com › rankings › top-ranked

Find Best Foreign Languages & Linguistics Colleges schools near you: A ranking of … The lowest ranked school in our list is in the top 19% of our overall quality … University of California – Berkeley is a great choice for individuals interested in a … world-class education, Purdue University Global delivers a fully personalized .

++++
42 Best Foreign Language Schools | 2020 Rankings

www.collegeaffordabilityguide.org › subjects › foreign…

However, the actual list expands slightly thanks to related degrees in German Studies, … Students can also choose to study world literature or how language is …

++++

The Best Language-Learning Software for 2020 | PCMag

www.pcmag.com › … › Education › Language Learning

The best free languagelearning app is Duolingo, hands down. Duolingo is available as both a web app and mobile app, and it works well whether you’re a total …

++++

Best language-learning apps, software, and online classes for

mashable.com › Tech › Apps

2020 – It offers in-depth and comprehensive lessons for people who want to learn fast. Humble Bundle. Duolingo. Babbel. Udemy. Memrise. Coursera. HelloTalk. It’s like Facebook, but for learning a new language. busuu. Great for people with only a few spare moments a day to get learning.

++++

15 Best At-Home Language Learning Programs, Tools 2020

nymag.com › article › how-to-learn-languages-at-home

2020 – Language experts tell us the best programs and resources for … has always happened outside the framework of official learning online, but .

++++

The 12 Best Language-Learning Apps, Programs and Online …

travel.usnews.com › Advice

2020 – One of the best ways to get in touch with new places and cultures is to study their native languages, and luckily, there are many ways to learn a ..

++++

TOP 10 Language Learning Apps – with reviews

www.effectivelanguagelearning.com

/Expert and User Reviews with Side-by-Side Comparison. View Guide. View Lessons. Highlights: Language Guide Available, Free Lessons Available.

++++

About Globish – Globish.com

www.globish.com › page=about_globish

The new e-book Globish The World Over, observes how a billion people are in need of a consistent language to do business across the globe, describes how …

Globish From Wikipedia https://wiki2.org/en/Globish_(Nerri%C3%A8re)

Globish is a name for a subset of the English language formalized in 2004 by Jean-Paul Nerrière. It uses a subset of standard English grammar and a list of 1500 English words. Nerrière claims it is “not a language” in and of itself, but rather it is the common ground that non-native English speakers adopt in the context of international business.

Globish The World Over In “Globish The World Over” Jean-Paul Nerrière discusses the real English that most of the world is using. For ESL students and teachers from all cultures, plus businesses that are “going global.” Globish1
CrossTalk: English vs Globish RT On this edition of Peter Lavelle’s CrossTalk: Speaking in one tongue? The English language is globally dominant today, but will this remain the case? Could, for example, Mandarin Chinese make a bid for global dominance? Is it desirable to have a single global language? Can any major language be devoid of cultural meaning? Asked differently, could English become a value-free language for all to use as they wish?
Globish Academia

++++

10 Best Free Educational Apps for Students | Mindster

  • Google Classroom. In an educational institution, students are often required to complete and submit homework and assignments. …
  • edX. …
  • Khan Academy. …
  • Duolingo. …
  • Remind. …
  • Photomath. …
  • SoloLearn. …
  • Quizlet.

+++++

Grammar From Wikipedia, https://wiki2.org/en/Grammar

In linguisticsgrammar (from Ancient Greek γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clausesphrases and words in a natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules and this field includes phonologymorphology and syntax, often complemented by phoneticssemantics and pragmatics.

The term “grammar” can also describe the rules which govern the linguistic behavior of a group of speakers. For example, the term “English grammar” may refer to the whole of English grammar; that is, to the grammars of all the speakers of the language, in which case the term encompasses a great deal of variation. Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Grammar

Universal Grammar – Part I The Virtual Linguistics Campus What is Universal Grammar and what are the central linguistic arguments underlying this influential model of linguistic thought? Prof. Handke seeks to answer these questions using linguistic and non-linguistic examples, but he also discusses the main problems that the current version of UG has to face.

Grammatical categories

Main article: Grammatical category

Grammar can be described as a system of categories and a set of rules that determine how categories combine to form different aspects of meaning. Languages differ widely in whether they are encoded through the use of categories or lexical units. However, several categories are so common as to be nearly universal. Such universal categories include the encoding of the grammatical relations of participants and predicates by grammatically distinguishing between their relations to a predicate, the encoding of temporal and spatial relations on predicates, and a system of grammatical person governing reference to and distinction between speakers and addressees and those about whom they are speaking.

Grammar-Land (FULL Audio Books) “Judge Grammar is far mightier than any Fairy Queen, for he rules over real kings and queens down here in Matter-of-fact-land. Our kings and queens have all to obey Judge Grammar’s laws, or else they would talk what is called bad grammar; and then, even their own subjects would laugh at them, and would say: “Poor things!

++++


20 Must-visit Websites to Learn English Grammar Online …

www.fluentu.com › blog › learn-english-grammar-online

One of the best ways to learn English grammar is by hearing it used in real situations. The more English you listen to, the more grammar you learn—without even 

++++


The 10 Best Websites to Improve Your English Grammar and …

prowritingaid.com › art › 10-Websites-to-Help-Improv…

2020 – 1. The ProWritingAid Blog · 2. Writing Forward · 3. 5 Minute English · 4. Grammar Girl: Quick and Dirty Tips · 5. Daily Grammar · 6. Lousy Writer · 7.

++++

English Grammar | British Councillearnenglish.

britishcouncil.org › grammar

Practising little and often is the best way to improve your grammar, so come back tomorrow to choose another grammar point to work on. Good luck! Choose a ..

LEARN ENGLISH STEP BY STEP. ENGLISH GRAMMAR LESSONS FOR BEGINERS FULL COURSE English Professionally – phrasal verbs in English, English grammar lessons and English words
English Grammar Course For Beginners: Basic English Grammar Shaw English Online Hello here is a great and free English grammar course taught by Esther. Esther is an American teacher from California. It is the best video course for beginner students. Esther teaches English articles, pronouns, prepositions, adjectives, etc. This video is perfect to help you improve your English speaking, listening, writing, and reading.

++++

Wall of Love on Montmartre in Paris: “I love you” in 250 languages, by calligraphist Fédéric Baron and artist Claire Kito (2000)

+++++

An inscription of Swampy Cree using Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, an abugida developed by Christian missionaries for Indigenous Canadian languages

+++++++++++

The main phases can be conveniently (if a little simplistically) divided into:

  • Before English (Prehistory – c. 500AD) (including Indo-European, Spread of Indo-European Languages, Germanic, The Celts, The Romans)
  • Old English (c. 500 – c. 1100) (including Invasions of Germanic Tribes, The Coming of Christianity and Literacy, The Anglo-Saxon or Old English Language, The Vikings, Old English after the Vikings)
  • Middle English (c. 1100 – c. 1500) (including Norman Conquest, French (Anglo-Norman) Influence, Middle English After the Normans, Resurgence of English, Chaucer and the Birth of English Literature)
  • Early Modern English (c. 1500 – c. 1800) (including Great Vowel Shift, The English Renaissance, Printing Press and Standardization, The Bible, Dictionaries and Grammars, Golden Age of English Literature, William Shakespeare, International Trade)
  • Late Modern English (c. 1800 – Present) (including The Industrial and Scientific Revolution,Colonialism and the British Empire, The New World, American Dialect, Black English, Britain’s Other Colonies, Language Reform, Later Developments, 20th Century)
  • English Today (including Who Speaks English?, English as a Lingua Franca, Reverse Loanwords, Modern English Vocabulary, Modern English Spelling)
  • +++++++++++++++++
Three Critical Communication Gaps Could Impact Global Business ...
Aáron's English Time! - Lessons - Tes Teach

==========

The Benefits of Learning a Language | Mert Arkan's WordPress Blog

++++++++++++

What will the English language be like in 100 years?

++++++++++

Related image

++++++++++

TWENTY-FIVE REASONS TO STUDY FOREIGN LANGUAGES
  1. Foreign Language study creates more positive attitudes and less prejudice toward people who are different.
  2. Analytical skills improve when students study a foreign language.
  3. Business skills plus foreign language skills make an employee more valuable in the marketplace.
  4. Dealing with another culture enables people to gain a more profound understanding of their own culture.
  5. Creativity is increased with the study of foreign languages.
  6. Graduates often cite foreign language courses as some of the most valuable courses in college because of the communication skills developed in the process.
  7. International travel is made easier and more pleasant through knowing a foreign language.
  8. Skills like problem solving, dealing with abstract concepts, are increased when you study a foreign language.
  9. Foreign language study enhances one’s opportunities in government, business, medicine, law, technology, military, industry, marketing, etc.
  10. A second language improves your skills and grades in math and English and on the SAT and GRE.
  11. Four out of five new jobs in the US are created as a result of foreign trade.
  12. Foreign languages provide a competitive edge in career choices: one is able to communicate in a second language.
  13. Foreign language study enhances listening skills and memory.
  14. One participates more effectively and responsibly in a multi-cultural world if one knows another language.
  15. Your marketable skills in the global economy are improved if you master another language.
  16. Foreign language study offers a sense of the past: culturally and linguistically.
  17. The study of a foreign tongue improves the knowledge of one’s own language: English vocabulary skills increase.
  18. The study of foreign languages teaches and encourages respect for other peoples: it fosters an understanding of the interrelation of language and human nature.
  19. Foreign languages expand one’s view of the world, liberalize one’s experiences, and make one more flexible and tolerant.
  20. Foreign languages expand one’s world view and limit the barriers between people: barriers cause distrust and fear.
  21. Foreign language study leads to an appreciation of cultural diversity.
  22. As immigration increases we need to prepare for changes in the American society.
  23. One is at a distinct advantage in the global market if one is as bilingual as possible.
  24. Foreign languages open the door to art, music, dance, fashion, cuisine, film, philosophy, science…
  25. Foreign language study is simply part of a very basic liberal education: to “educate” is to lead out, to lead out of confinement and narrowness and darkness.

Renate Latimer, Associate Professor Emerita of German

++++

Learn/Practice English with MOVIES (Lesson #18) Title: Skyfall Exciting English
Subscribe for more content! Follow us on facebook at: https://www.facebook.com/excitingengl… . Studying English can be a bit boring sometimes, so why not add some fun into your learning! This short video will introduce you to a segment of a popular movie, and give you an opportunity to learn new words, phrases, and expressions of the English language. Go to my channel for similar movie based lessons!
ENGLISH LESSON with TV SHOWS (Lesson #2) Title: Star Trek Exciting English
Studying English can be a bit boring sometimes, so why not add some fun into your learning! This short video will introduce you to a segment of a TV show, and give you an opportunity to learn new words, phrases, and expressions of the English language. Go to my channel for similar movie based lessons!

++++

Multilingualism From Wikipedia,

Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a group of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world’s population. More than half of all Europeans claim to speak at least one language other than their mother tongue; but many read and write in one language. Always useful to traders, multilingualism is advantageous for people wanting to participate in globalization and cultural openness. Owing to the ease of access to information facilitated by the Internet, individuals’ exposure to multiple languages is becoming increasingly possible.

Terms

  • monolingual, monoglot – 1 language spoken
  • bilingual, diglot – 2 languages spoken
  • trilingual, triglot – 3 languages spoken
  • quadrilingual, tetraglot – 4 languages spoken
  • quinquelingual, pentaglot – 5 languages spoken
  • sexalingual, hexaglot – 6 languages spoken
  • septilingual, heptaglot – 7 languages spoken
  • octolingual, octoglot – 8 languages spoken
  • novelingual, enneaglot – 9 languages spoken
  • decalingual, decaglot – 10 languages spoken
  • undecalingual, hendecaglot – 11 languages spoken
  • duodecalingual, dodecaglot – 12 languages spoken

People who speak several languages are also called polyglots. Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Multilingualism

Do we think differently in different languages? | BBC Ideas There are more than 7,000 languages in the world so does that mean there are more than 7,000 ways of seeing it? The Whorfian hypothesis is the idea that the language we speak affects the way we think and even how we see and structure the world around us.

++++

List of polyglots
From Wikipedia, https://wiki2.org/en/List_of_polyglots

This is a list of no­table peo­ple who, ac­cord­ing to re­li­able sources, know six or more lan­guages.

This Man Speaks 32 Different Languages Great Big Story
Ioannis Ikonomou works for the European Commission as a translator. It’s a prestigious position, and yet it still sells him short. You see, Ioannis speaks 32 living languages. He belongs to a very small and special group of people called hyperpolyglots who have the extraordinary ability to attain fluency in many different tongues. According to Ioannis, there’s no special trick or easy way to become a hyperpolyglot, but the best way to start is to boldly put yourself out there and SPEAK.
AMAZING! 13 year old polyglot speaks 20 languages Wouter Corduwener
This polyglot is very talented and speaks many languages.
4 Year Old Speaks 7 Languages!! 🤯 @Best Little Big Shots
Meet the 4-year old polyglot Bella from Moskow, who can speak up to 7 languages from Russian to Arabic, German, French, Spanish, Mandarin and English.

+++++

From 4-year-old boy who knows all Shakespeare book, to 4-year girl who knows 7 Languages Worlds Extraordinary Kids | Worlds Got Talent Genius Kids ClickTube
Worlds Extraordinary Kids | Worlds Got Talent Genius Kids | Top 10 Kid Interviews Worlds Got Talent Genius Superkids in English Literature, Kung Fu, Piano & Spelling | Full Video Hey Guys! hope you enjoy this amazing superkids show. This is the second part of Extraordinary Kids. Do not forget to share and like if you enjoy this compilation 😉 1) Four-Year-Old Shakespeare Wiz ( Episode Highlight), this little boy is in love with the Bard. His name is Jackson. 2) Ryusei Imai from Japan is Kung Fu master, Tiny Bruce Lee! Five-Year-Old. He had an amazing performance in Superkids show. 3) A little Piano genius, Anke, Five-Year-Old, is showing outstanding playing in Little Big Shot Show. 4) The last but not least, a little brainbox, Akash, can spell any word! He is from Texas, USA.
TOP TEN GOLDEN BUZZER KID SINGERS! and their English Language Skills Top 10 Talent Auditions From America’s Got Talent & Britains Got Talent 10. Courtney Hadwin America’s Got Talent 9. Darcy Lynne America’s Got Talent 8. Jasmine Elcock Britain’s Got Talent 7. Flau’Jae America’s Got Talent 6. Grace VanderWaal America’s Got Talent 5. Angelica Hale America’s Got Talent 4. Kyle Tomlinson Britain’s Got Talent 3. Beau Dermont Britains Got Talent 2. Sarah Ikumu Britain’s Got Talent 1. Amanada Mena America’s Got Talent
Language and talent of TOP 10 Best Singer America’s Got Talent ALL TIME Top 10 Talent
Top 10 Actors Who Can Pull Off Foreign Accents WatchMojo.com
These actors are the vocal chameleons of the big and small screens.
TOP 10 HILARIOUS Stand Up Comedians | Amazing Auditions LOL! These HILARIOUS comedians from America’s Got Talent and Britain’s Got Talent had us in tears. Their funny stand up acts won over the judges and some even earned the Golden Buzzer! Including performances from:
72 Human Laugh Sound Effect by X Sound Effect This video is about laugh sound effect. Enjoy!
Words that Changed The World, with Jeremy Irons and Carey Mulligan intelligence Squared
For 15 years, Intelligence Squared has vigorously championed the spoken word. The finest speakers from across the globe have come to our stage — to argue, to move, to persuade and change minds. Their speeches epitomise the vital role that public speaking plays in our lives. To celebrate the power of oratory, we held a major event which will showcase how great speeches have swayed the course of history and demonstrate how, more than ever, we need them to help define our values and who we are.
Top 20 Billion Dollar Box Office Movies WatchMojo.com As if earning all the money wasn’t enough, these films have also got our adoration. For this list, we’ll be looking at films that crossed the billion-dollar threshold at the global box office and ranking them on their overall quality. Our countdown includes “The Avengers”, “Titanic”, “Jurassic Park”, “Jaws”, “The Dark Knight”, and more! Did YOUR favorite movie make the list? Let us know in the comments!

++++

2019 Scripps National Spelling Bee Declares First-Ever Group of Co-Champions Scripps National Spelling Bee
In an unprecedented display of academic achievement, eight spellers have become co-champions of the 2019 Scripps National Spelling Bee, making history as the first group to share the coveted title in the 92 years of the storied event.

+++++

70 People Reveal How to Say Hello and Goodbye in Their Country | Condé Nast Traveler
In this episode of Many People from Many Countries, 70 people reveal how to say hello and goodbye in their country. This helpful guide will show you how to greet and bid adieu to someone from France, Russia, Germany, Japan, China, Italy, Spain, and many more countries.
70 People Show How to Count to Ten in Their Country | Condé Nast Traveler
In this episode of Many People, Many Countries, 70 people show Condé Nast Traveler how to count to ten in their country’s primary language. Find out how to count to ten in German, French, Spanish, Italian, Hindi, Bengali, Punjabi, Mandarin, Russian, Japanese, and more!
70 People Reveal How To Count Money in Their Country | Condé Nast Traveler In this episode of Many People from Many Countries, 70 people from 70 countries reveal how to count money in their country. Find out how to count cash in different languages from around the world like
70 People from 70 Countries Sing Their Country’s National Anthem | Condé Nast Traveler In this episode of Many People from Many Countries, 70 people from 70 countries sing their home country’s national anthem in their home country’s first language. Enjoy national anthems for Canada, Australia, China, Brazil, Argentina, Russia, Germany, Austria, Argentina, Cuba, Chile, India, Pakistan and more, then put on your judge wig and pick the best national anthem in the comments.
70 People on How To Sing the Happy Birthday Song in Their Country | Condé Nast Traveler In this episode of Many People, Many Places, 70 people show Condé Nast Traveler how to sing the Happy Birthday song in their country. Find out how to belt out the best birthday wishes in German, French, Spanish, Italian, Hindi, Bengali, Punjabi, Mandarin, Russian, Japanese, and more!
70 People Recite Their Country’s Tourism Slogan | Condé Nast Traveler

Countries of the World – Nationalities and Languages ELF Learning

++++

Eden Buttenshaw Learn English Through Story ★ Subtitles Emma

++++

Language Pathways and Aphasia, Animation Speech centers in the brain, neural pathways of language comprehension and production, Wernicke’s and Broca’s aphasia. This video is available for instant download licensing here : https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com/-/g…

Merriam-Webster Dictionary Website https://www.merriam-webster.com/

Get the most trusted, up-to-date definitions from Merriam-Webster. Find word meaning, pronunciation, origin, synonyms, and more.

++++

Merriam-Webster Dictionary at YouTube :https://www.youtube.com/user/MerriamWebsterOnline

Build Vocabulary with Merriam-Webster’s Elementary Dictionary – Bald Eag Merriam-Webster Dictionary
The Elementary Dictionary is a great way to keeps kids engaged and learning, even at home. Designed for students in grades 3-5, (ages 8-11) this dictionary will introduce your child to thousands of new words and meanings and help them develop their reading and writing skills.
The Short History of English Dictionaries Akash Vukoti
In this video, I explain the history of English Dictionaries, how dictionaries were created, when English dictionaries started becoming massive successes, and how the ideas of a few American lexicographers became America’s standard dictionary and the official dictionary of the Scripps National Spelling Bee.
How to Remember ‘Affect’ and ‘Effect’ – Merriam-Webster Ask the Editor Merriam-Webster Dictionary
Is there an easy way to remember whether you want affect or effect? Senior Editor Emily Brewster explains a simple trick that will work most of the time
How to Remember the Spelling of ‘Definitely’ – Merriam-Webster Ask the Editor
Merriam-Webster Dictionary
Editor Serenity Carr breaks down a simple way to remember how to spell definitely. See more
2019 Word of the Year: Behind the Scenes
8 months agoHow did we choose they as our Word of the Year? Peter Sokolowski explains the data behind our decisions, and how this and the other Words of the Year reflect what was on people’s minds this year. More details: https://www.merriam-webster.com/words…

+++++

The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, New Trade Paperback, 2019 Copyright

The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, New Trade Paperback, 2019 Copyright

by Merriam-Webster Paperback$8.49

Merriam-Webster's Everyday Language Reference Set, Newest Edition

Merriam-Webster’s Everyday Language Reference Set, Newest Edition

by Merriam-Webster $14.99

+++++

Merriam-Webster's Elementary Dictionary, New Edition, 2019 Copyright

Merriam-Webster’s Elementary Dictionary, New Edition, 2019

by Merriam-Webster and Inc. $15.99

Merriam-Webster Children's Dictionary, New Edition: Features 3,000 Photographs and Illustrations

Merriam-Webster Children’s Dictionary, New Edition: Features 3,000 Photographs and Illustrations

by DK Hardcover$16.48

+++++

162 Of The Most Majestic Libraries In The World

hough they are losing ground to the e-book and the audiobook, public libraries were once central hubs of human intellectual progress. There’s something about them that still attracts people, however – whether it’s their magnificent historical buildings or the unmistakable smell of old books and dust, scholars and bookworms alike still enjoy perusing their hoards of literary treasures.

Because of their critical importance, libraries were often built to be beautiful and built to last. Combined with the sometimes priceless book collections that they hold, their simultaneously enormous and intimate spaces possess a charm that no other type of building can command.

If you know of any other beautiful libraries that should be celebrated by all the book lovers, then please add them to this list. You can vote for your favorite houses of knowledge as well!

#1 The National Library Of Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

The National Library Of Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

Look, see and read about all at:
https://www.boredpanda.com/extraordinary-libraries/?utm_source=google&utm_medium=organic&utm_campaign=organic

++++

Alphabet: The Story of Writing pt. 1 and 2 by Donald Jackson
The Evolution of Writing The Virtual Linguistics Campus In this first of two related E-lectures, Prof. Handke discusses the orgins of modern writing, from early paintings found 17,000 BC, via proto-writing systems, such as tallies or the Inca Quipu-system, to the predecessors of modern writing, such as the Cuneiform system.
American manual alphabet chart
American manual alphabet, as used in American Sign Language

ypes of letters

The American manual alphabet, an example of letters in fingerspelling.

The American manual alphabet, an example of letters in fingerspelling.

Examples of alphabets and their letters

Venn diagram of letters in the GreekCyrillic and Latin alphabets. Certain letters appear in two or more of these alphabets, although they may not represent the same sound.

World­wide there are many al­pha­bets used at pre­sent, with Ara­bic, Cyril­lic, and Latin in widest use. The fol­low­ing al­pha­bets, ab­jads, and in­di­vid­ual let­ters are dis­cussed in re­lated ar­ti­cles. Each rep­re­sents a dif­fer­ent script:

Example alphabetLetters in example alphabet
Assamese alphabetঅ, আ, ই, ঈ, উ, ঊ, ঋ, এ, ঐ, ও, ঔ, ক, খ, গ, ঘ, ঙ, চ, ছ, জ, ঝ, ঞ, ট, ঠ, ড, ঢ, ণ, ত, থ, দ, ধ, ন, প, ফ, ব, ভ, ম, য, ৰ, ল, ৱ, শ, ষ, স, হ,ক্ষ, ড়, ঢ়, য়, ৎ, ং, ঃ, ঁ
Arabic alphabet(Alphabetical from right to left) هـ
Armenian alphabetԱ, Բ, ԳԴԵԶԷԸԹԺԻԼԽԾ, Կ, ՀՁՂՃՄՅՆՇՈՉՊՋՌՍՎՏՐ, Ց, ՒՓ, Ք, ՕՖ
Syriac alphabet(Alphabetical from right to left) ܐܒܓܕܗܘܙܚܛܝܟܟܠܡܡܢܢܣܥܦܨܩܪܫܬ
Cyrillic scriptАБВГДЕЁЖЗИЙКЛМНОПРСТУФХЦЧШЩЪЫЬЭЮЯ
Georgian script
Greek alphabetΑΒΓΔΕΖΗΘΙΚΛΜΝΞΟΠΡΣΤΥΦΧΨΩ
Hebrew alphabet(Alphabetical from right to left) אבגדהוזחטיכלמנסעפצקרשת
Latin alphabetABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ&
Hangulㄱ ㄲ ㄴ ㄷ ㄸ ㄹ ㅁ ㅂ ㅃ ㅅ ㅆ ㅇ ㅈ ㅉ ㅊ ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅎ ㅏ ㅐ ㅑ ㅒ ㅓ ㅔ ㅕ ㅖ ㅗ ㅘ ㅙ ㅚ ㅛ ㅜ ㅝ ㅞ ㅟ ㅠ ㅡ ㅢ ㅣ
Burmeseက ခ ဂ ဃ င စ ဆ ဇ ဈ ည ဋ ဌ ဍ ဎ ဏ တ ထ ဒ ဓ န ပ ဖ ဗ ဘ မ ယ ရ လ ဝ သ ဟ ဠ အ
Bopomofoㄅ ㄆ ㄇ ㄈ ㄉ ㄊ ㄋ ㄌ ㄍ ㄎ ㄏ ㄐ ㄑ ㄒ ㄓ ㄔ ㄕ ㄖ ㄗ ㄘ ㄙ ㄚ ㄛ ㄜ ㄝ ㄞ ㄟ ㄠ ㄡ ㄢ ㄣ ㄤ ㄥ ㄦ ㄧ ㄨ ㄩ ㄭ
Ogham   ᚂ ᚃ ᚄ ᚅ ᚆ ᚇ ᚈ ᚉ ᚊ ᚋ ᚌ ᚍ ᚎ ᚏ ᚐ ᚑ ᚒ ᚓ ᚔ ᚕ ᚖ ᚗ ᚘ ᚙ ᚚ ᚛ ᚜
Ethiopicሀ ለ ሐ መ ሠ ረ ሰ ሸ ቀ በ ተ ቸ ኀ ነ ኘ አ ከ ኸ ወ ዐ ዘ ዠ የ ደ ጀ ገ ጠ ጨ ጰ ጸ ፀ ፈ ፐ
Tifinagh (Amazigh alphabet), ⴳⵯ, , ⴽⵯ, 

The In­ter­na­tional Pho­netic Al­pha­bet is used to rep­re­sent exact pro­nun­ci­a­tion, for ex­am­ple, ], which is named a glot­tal stop.

Alphabet From Wikipedia, https://wiki2.org/en/Alphabet

An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols or graphemes (called letters) that represent the phonemes of certain spoken languages. Not all writing systems represent language in this way; in a syllabary, each character represents a syllable, for instance, and logographic systems use characters to represent words, morphemes, or other semantic units.

Historical Writing Systems Template Image.jpg
History Grapheme List of writing systems

The first fully phonemic script, the Proto-Canaanite script, later known as the Phoenician alphabet, is considered to be the first alphabet, and is the ancestor of most modern alphabets, including ArabicCyrillicGreekHebrewLatin, and possibly Brahmic.

The history of alphabetic writing goes back to the consonantal writing system used for Semitic languages in the Levant in the 2nd millennium BCE. Most or nearly all alphabetic scripts used throughout the world today ultimately go back to this Semitic proto-alphabet

Rosetta Stone.JPG
The Rosetta Stone From Wikipedia, The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele inscribed with three versions of a decree issued in Memphis, Egypt in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V Epiphanes. The top and middle texts are in Ancient Egyptian using hieroglyphic and Demotic scripts respectively, while the bottom is in Ancient Greek. The decree has only minor differences between the three versions, making the Rosetta Stone key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs.
Lascaux painting.jpg
Depiction of aurochs, horses and deer UNESCO World Heritage Site Wikipedia “Lascaux Cave” French: [lasko]) is a complex of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department of Dordogne in southwestern France. Over 600 parietal wall paintings cover the interior walls and ceilings of the cave. They are the combined effort of many generations and, with continued debate, the age of the paintings is now usually estimated at around 17,000 years (early Magdalenian).

List of animal sounds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of animal sounds. This list contains words used in the English language to represent the noises and vocalizations of particular animals, especially noises used by animals for communication. The words which are used on the list are in the form of verbs, though many can also be used as nouns or interjections, and many of them are also specifically onomatopoeias (labelled “OP”). This list also contains audio recordings of animal sounds.

Read More: https://wiki2.org/en/List_of_animal_sounds

++++

Animal communication
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Great egret (Ardea alba) in a courtship display communicating the desire to find a mate.

An­i­mal communication is the trans­fer of in­for­ma­tion from one or a group of an­i­mals (sender or senders) to one or more other an­i­mals (re­ceiver or re­ceivers) that af­fects the cur­rent or fu­ture be­hav­ior of the re­ceivers. In­for­ma­tion may be sent in­ten­tion­ally, as in a courtship dis­play, or un­in­ten­tion­ally, as in the trans­fer of scent from preda­tor to prey. In­for­ma­tion may be trans­ferred to an “au­di­ence” of sev­eral re­ceivers. An­i­mal com­mu­ni­ca­tion is a rapidly grow­ing area of study in dis­ci­plines in­clud­ing an­i­mal be­hav­ior, so­ci­ol­ogy, neu­rol­ogy and an­i­mal cog­ni­tion. Many as­pects of an­i­mal be­hav­ior, such as sym­bolic name use, emo­tional ex­pres­sion, learn­ing and sex­ual be­hav­ior, are being un­der­stood in new ways.

When the in­for­ma­tion from the sender changes the be­hav­ior of a re­ceiver, the in­for­ma­tion is re­ferred to as a “sig­nal”. Sig­nalling the­ory pre­dicts that for a sig­nal to be main­tained in the pop­u­la­tion, both the sender and re­ceiver should usu­ally re­ceive some ben­e­fit from the in­ter­ac­tion. Sig­nal pro­duc­tion by senders and the per­cep­tion and sub­se­quent re­sponse of re­ceivers are thought to co­e­volve.[1] Sig­nals often in­volve mul­ti­ple mech­a­nisms, e.g. both vi­sual and au­di­tory, and for a sig­nal to be un­der­stood the co­or­di­nated be­hav­iour of both sender and re­ceiver re­quire care­ful study.

Read More: https://wiki2.org/en/Animal_communication

++++

1 Hour of Monkey Sounds by Your Questions Answered

Some chimps are angry at mirrors, while others are calm by Xavier HUBERT-BRIERR

1to 2 billion years ago and making sound or vice sounds in relation to sound,

++++

Lion Man: Kevin Richardson | South Africa Tim Noonan
Broadcast: 20 November 2011 on Today Tonight, Seven Network, Australia. Tim travels to South Africa to meet Kevin Richardson who truly dances with death. His love and obsession is lions and they love him back but they wanted to tear Tim apart …

++++

How Close Are We to Talking With Animals? Seeker We know about apes learning sign language, but what about dolphins typing on an underwater keyboard? Or A.I. machines translating prairie dog chirps? We want to answer how close we are to conversing with the animal kingdom.
Love, kindness, and friendships as Universal Natural Languages, HUMAN AND ANIMALS showing love make HEART Melting – CUTE Animals Hugging People MAI PM HUMAN AND ANIMALS showing love make HEART Melting – CUTE Animals Hugging People
Funniest Unlikely Animal Friendships Compilation | Funny Pet Videos Brand new weekly theme compilation of different pets forming the most unlikely friendships. Watch dogs, cats, birds, goats, monkeys and more become BFFs
Music as a Universal Language, ANIMALS and POWER OF MUSIC VideoMaster Animals make everybody happy
How trees secretly talk to each otherBBC News Trees talk and share resources right under our feet, using a fungal network nicknamed the Wood Wide Web. Some plants use the system to support their offspring, while others hijack it to sabotage their rivals.
Visual Languages, Some Pictures worth 1000 words Best of the Best: 20 Years of Nature’s Best Photography Watch on YouTube 1080 HD for best quality viewing. Produced to accompany the Nature’s Best Photography “Best of the Best” Exhibition, this video brings you nature photography from the past 20 years including grand prize winners, youth winners, and the Windland Smith Rice International Awards winners for 2014 and 2015

++++

Sabine Metzger Wow! Amazing Heart Gardens Design

100 plus Red Roses

++++

++++

Free promotional information for visitors, Some of the best free promotional, motivational, informational, educational documentary, and sample books, ebooks, video, audio, music, pictures, links, about topics From top to bottom of the page to read or watch, listen, learn, use and to enjoy with satisfaction ]
Promotional Guide charges members and companies promotional fees.
For the buyers of the best 100 products and services, prices are the same as they buy directly from Amazon or other companies, with no any difference. Plus lots of free promotional information for visitors.

++++

Disclaimer of liability
The information, books, ebooks, Pictures, Videos, products, services, material plus any other content in this site and related sites or other [ Pak Company and Promotional guide network and links ] or any third party all are for general information, entertainments, and promotion purposes only. However, we [ Pak company, Promotional Guide, or anyone any way related ] make no responsibility or warranty of any kind regarding accuracy, adequacy, validity, reliability, availability, or completeness of information, products, and services plus other items.
All content on this website and Promotional Guide, 4Seasons Gardens, Smart ebooks Reading, Best 100 Plus, and other sites or webpages also mobile sites by Pak Company and Promotional Guide or any third party are for promotion, general information, and entertainment for adult. Thisknowledge information and other material should not be considered all right, correct or complete, up to date, and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or be used in place of a visit, consultation, guidance, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. Never disregard any professional or medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on the Sites!
You should consult medical professionals, an expert in the field of interest for more direct, reliable advice and guidance for your chooses and actions, all strictly and solely on your own risk.
By using these sites, you signify your assent to these Terms and Conditions. If you do not agree to all of these Terms and Conditions, you must not use these sites!